It would remain independent until BC, when it was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic Kingdom: but not before having triggered a sequence of Ptolemaic and Seleucid court intrigues, war and ultimately leading to the marriage of Theos and Berenice. Most of the information about the Second Syrian War has been lost. It is clear that Antigonus' fleet defeated Ptolemy's at the Battle of Cos in , diminishing Ptolemaic naval power.
Macedon's involvement in the war ceased when Antigonus became preoccupied by the rebellion of Corinth and Chalcis in BC, possibly instigated by Ptolemy, as well as an increase in enemy activity along Macedon's northern frontier.
Antiochus repudiated his previous wife, Laodice , and turned over substantial domain to her. He died in Ephesus in BC, poisoned by Laodice according to some sources. Also known as the Laodicean War, the Third Syrian War began with one of the many succession crises that plagued the Hellenistic states. Antiochus II left two ambitious mothers, his repudiated wife Laodice and Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice Syra , in a competition to put their respective sons on the throne.
Laodice claimed that Antiochus had named her son heir while on his deathbed, but Berenice argued that her newly born son was the legitimate heir. Berenice asked her brother Ptolemy III , the new Ptolemaic king, to come to Antioch and help place her son on the throne.
When Ptolemy arrived, Berenice and her child had been assassinated. He won major victories over Seleucus in Syria and Anatolia, briefly occupied Antioch and, as a recent cuneiform discovery  proves, even reached Babylon.
These victories were marred by the loss of the Cyclades to Antigonus Gonatas in the Battle of Andros. Seleucus had his own difficulties.
His domineering mother asked him to grant co-regency to his younger brother, Antiochus Hierax , as well as rule over Seleucid territories in Anatolia. Antiochus promptly declared independence, undermining Seleucus' efforts to defend against Ptolemy. In exchange for a peace in BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria , the port of Antioch.
The Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power.
By BC, he had re-established Seleucid control over Media and Persia, which had been in rebellion. The ambitious king turned his eyes toward Syria and Egypt. Egypt had been significantly weakened by court intrigue and public unrest. The young king quickly fell under the absolute influence of imperial courtiers. His ministers used their absolute power in their own self-interest, to the people's great chagrin. Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. He recaptured Seleucia Pieria as well as cities in Phoenicia , amongst them Tyre.
Rather than promptly invading Egypt, Antiochus waited in Phoenicia for over a year, consolidating his new territories and listening to diplomatic proposals from the Ptolemaic kingdom. Meanwhile, Ptolemy's minister Sosibius began recruiting and training an army.
He recruited not only from the local Greek population, as Hellenistic armies generally were, but also from the native Egyptians, enrolling at least thirty thousand natives as phalangites. This innovation paid off, but it would eventually have dire consequences for Ptolemaic stability. In the summer of BC, Ptolemy engaged and defeated the long-delayed Antiochus in the Battle of Raphia , the largest battle since the Battle of Ipsus over eighty years earlier.
Ptolemy's victory preserved his control over Coele-Syria, and the weak king declined to advance further into Antiochus' empire, even to retake Seleucia Pieria.
The Ptolemaic kingdom would continue to weaken over the following years, suffering from economic problems and rebellion. Nationalist sentiment had developed among the native Egyptians who had fought at Raphia.
Confident and well-trained, they broke from Ptolemy in what is known as the Egyptian Revolt , establishing their own kingdom in Upper Egypt which the Ptolemies finally reconquered around BC. The fate of Sosibius is unclear, but Agothocles seems to have held the regency for some time until he was lynched by the volatile Alexandrian mob.
The regency was passed from one adviser to another, and the kingdom was in a state of near anarchy. Antiochus quickly swept through the region.
After a brief setback at Gaza , he delivered a crushing blow to the Ptolemies at the Battle of Panium near the head of the River Jordan which earned him the important port of Sidon. The Romans would suffer no disruption of the import of grain from Egypt, key to supporting the massive population in Italy. As neither monarch had planned to invade Egypt itself, they willingly complied to Rome's demands. Antiochus completed the subjugation of Coele-Syria in BC and went on to raid Ptolemy's remaining coastal strongholds in Caria and Cilicia.
Problems at home led Ptolemy to seek a quick and disadvantageous conclusion. The nativist movement, which began before the war with the Egyptian Revolt and expanded with the support of Egyptian priests, created turmoil and sedition throughout the kingdom. Economic troubles led the Ptolemaic government to increase taxation, which in turn fed the nationalist fire. December 22, - Syria's state-run media announces government forces have taken full control of Aleppo, ending more than four years of rebel rule there.
April 4, - Dozens of civilians are reportedly killed in a suspected chemical attack in the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhoun. The Russian Defense Ministry claims that gas was released when Syrian forces bombed a chemical munitions depot operated by terrorists. Activists, however, say that Syrians carried out a targeted chemical attack. April 6, - The United States launches a military strike on a Syrian government airbase in response to the chemical weapon attack on civilians. On US President Donald Trump 's orders, US warships launch 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the airbase which was home to the warplanes that carried out the chemical attacks.
July 7, - Trump and Putin reach an agreement on curbing violence in southwest Syria during their meeting at the G20 in Hamburg, Germany. The ceasefire will take effect in the de-escalation zone beginning at noon Damascus time on July 9. US-backed forces fighting in Raqqa say "major military operations" have ended, though there are still pockets of resistance in the city. October 26, - A joint report from the United Nations and international chemical weapons inspectors finds that the Assad regime was responsible for the April sarin attack that killed more than 80 people.
Syria has repeatedly denied it had anything to do with the attack and also denies it has any chemical weapons. February 24, - The UN Security Council unanimously approves a day ceasefire resolution in Syria, though it is unclear when the ceasefire is meant to start, or how it will be enforced. February 27, - Within minutes of when a five-hour "humanitarian pause" ordered by Putin -- from 9 a. In all, children were killed and were injured in Syria in the first two months of , Touma says, citing multiple sources. April 7, - Helicopters drop barrel bombs filled with toxic gas on the last rebel-held town in Eastern Ghouta, activist groups say.
The World Health Organization later says that as many as people may have been affected by the attack. April 14, - The United States, France and the United Kingdom launch airstrikes on Syria in response to the chemical weapons attack in Eastern Ghouta a week earlier. July 27, - A UN envoy says the UN has verified 7, cases of children either killed or maimed in Syria's seven-year war, but says unverified reports puts the number "way beyond 20, September 17, - Russia and Turkey announce they have agreed to create a demilitarized zone in Syria's Idlib province, potentially thwarting a large-scale military operation and impending humanitarian disaster in the country's last rebel stronghold.
The zone, which will be patrolled by Turkish and Russian military units, will become operational from October March 23, - Kurdish forces announce they have captured the eastern Syrian pocket of Baghouz, the last populated area under ISIS rule. Photos: Syria's civil war, in pictures. According to the UN Envoy for Syria, an estimated , Syrians have been killed since an uprising in March spiraled into civil war.
See how the conflict has unfolded. Hide Caption. An injured man lying in the back of a vehicle is rushed to a hospital in Daraa, Syria, on March 23, Violence flared in Daraa after a group of teens and children were arrested for writing political graffiti. Dozens of people were killed when security forces cracked down on demonstrations. Anti-government protesters demonstrate in Daraa on March 23, In response to continuing protests, the Syrian government announced several plans to appease citizens.
Syrian children walk over bricks stored for road repairs during a spontaneous protest June 15, , at a refugee camp near the Syrian border in Yayladagi, Turkey. Jamal al-Wadi speaks in Istanbul on September 15, , after an alignment of Syrian opposition leaders announced the creation of a Syrian National Council -- their bid to present a united front against Bashar al-Assad's regime and establish a democratic system. Delegates from Arab League member states and Turkey discuss a response to the government's crackdown in Syria on November 16, Supporters of al-Assad celebrate during a referendum vote in Damascus on February 26, Opposition activists reported at least 55 deaths across the country as Syrians headed to the polls.