This book is a must have for anyone who is a serious beginner or professional figurative artist. It is filled from cover to cover with clearly written text, outstanding drawings and diagrams, and valuable information and insight. Part 1 in the book covers the oft overlooked imperative issues of stance and holding the medium, direct drawing, telling a story, drawing in a sketchbook and drawing in your studio.
Parts 2, 3, 4, and 5 progress in a logical way through valuable information on the figure and clothing, including: clear information on how body forms and clothing wrap around, folds including their types and Add to cart. Only 9 left in stock more on the way. I just bought it a few days ago and currently I am learning the 7 basic folds. This book seems great and I can already draw a few of the basic folds.
What I really look forward to is the part of drawing specific clothing items, since there really aren't many good books on that. Highly recommend it if you are a beginner or an intermediate artist like me. Only 6 left in stock more on the way. Although the illustrations are from an earlier time, forces like gravity do not change with fashions. This small book has helped me more than big, fat, wordy ones! I really wanted to snatch this from my daughter's hands and grab some paint or colored pencils.
This is a great book for the money and would keep your daughter or you entertained for a loooonnnggg time. It's creative! I ordered this book along with "Drawing Dynamic Hands," also by Hogarth it's excellent as well. I'd been doing mostly figure study, and it was time to make the jump to clothing. I realized I had no idea what a wrinkle looked like you'd never guess that from my clothes! This is a really great book! It's always easier to practice using interpretations that have been filtered through the eyes of other artists.
Hogarth's style is exaggerated, but this is exactly what makes this book a great learning tool and reference. I do understand how someone could be put-off by this type of illustration, but I feel the principals shown in the book can be applied to other styles as well. I happen to like this style of illustration -- it's probably nostalgia on my part; I grew up reading comics illustrated by Burne Hogarth -- but Only 1 left in stock - order soon. It's okay. Great wood burning book and not for someone that is new to wood burning.
Jan 1, This book is on the fundamentals of Classical Figure enspenempemet.tk figures are in " leotards", not nude. This book is perfect for the beginner artist. Jan 1, This book is on the fundamentals of Classical Figure Drawing. This book is perfect for the beginner artist through professional artist. Very little.
There is a lot to do out of the book for experienced wood burners. The Amazon description gives conflicting information about the age range that this book would be targeted towards. As a matter of fact, even after studying the book, I am still perplexed. On the one hand, the cartoon-like illustrations tend to be oriented towards a younger population, but the content is relevant to an older group that already has a basic knowledge and pronounced interest in the subject. To add to the confusion, there is the warning that scissors and needles are sharp so ask for adult permission which would be insulting to, say, a 6th grader.
I showed this book to my niece who is a textile designer and she felt it was very well done but was also flummoxed as I want my granddaughters to learn to draw clothing, so I bought this book at my daughter's recommendation for each of the two oldest girls. This book has been a hit with them and I'm sure will used even more in the coming year. Fashion Design Workshop: Stylish step-by-step projects and drawing tips for up-and-coming designers Walter Foster Studio. I purchased this book as a gift for my ten year-old niece who is very interested in both drawing and fashion. She was tracing and drawing within minutes of opening the book.
Her tears and breast milk combined to create a giant salt lake: Salar de Uyuni. This landscape is connected to everywhere on the planet via the phones in our pockets; linked to each of us by invisible threads of commerce, science, politics and power. Our exploded view diagram combines and visualizes three central, extractive processes that are required to run a large-scale artificial intelligence system: material resources, human labor, and data.
We consider these three elements across time — represented as a visual description of the birth, life and death of a single Amazon Echo unit. Mezzadra and Nielson note that labor is central to this extractive relationship, which has repeated throughout history: from the way European imperialism used slave labor, to the forced work crews on rubber plantations in Malaya, to the Indigenous people of Bolivia being driven to extract the silver that was used in the first global currency. Thinking about extraction requires thinking about labor, resources, and data together.
Hence the need for a visualization that can bring these connected, but globally dispersed processes into a single map. If you read our map from left to right, the story begins and ends with the Earth, and the geological processes of deep time. But read from top to bottom, we see the story as it begins and ends with a human. The top is the human agent, querying the Echo, and supplying Amazon with the valuable training data of verbal questions and responses that they can use to further refine their voice-enabled AI systems.
At the bottom of the map is another kind of human resource: the history of human knowledge and capacity, which is also used to train and optimize artificial intelligence systems. This is a key difference between artificial intelligence systems and other forms of consumer technology: they rely on the ingestion, analysis and optimization of vast amounts of human generated images, texts and videos. When a human engages with an Echo, or another voice-enabled AI device, they are acting as much more than just an end-product consumer.
It is difficult to place the human user of an AI system into a single category: rather, they deserve to be considered as a hybrid case. Just as the Greek chimera was a mythological animal that was part lion, goat, snake and monster, the Echo user is simultaneously a consumer, a resource, a worker, and a product. This multiple identity recurs for human users in many technological systems. In the specific case of the Amazon Echo, the user has purchased a consumer device for which they receive a set of convenient affordances.
But they are also a resource, as their voice commands are collected, analyzed and retained for the purposes of building an ever-larger corpus of human voices and instructions. It presents a sleek surface with no ability to open it, repair it or change how it functions. The object itself is a very simple extrusion of plastic representing a collection of sensors — its real power and complexity lies somewhere else, far out of sight.
In his lifetime he published forty major works across the fields of medicine, geology, comparative religion and music. He invented the first magnetic clock, many early automatons, and the megaphone. As Kircher wrote:. In this manner it will be perfect, and capable to emit clearly any kind of sound: in fact the statue will be able to speak continuously, uttering in either a human or animal voice: it will laugh or sneer; it will seem to really cry or moan; sometimes with great astonishment it will strongly blow. If the opening of the spiral shaped tube is located in correspondence to an open public space, all human words pronounced, focused in the conduit, would be replayed through the mouth of the statue.
The listening system could eavesdrop on everyday conversations in the piazza, and relay them to the 17th century Italian oligarchs. People inside the homes of aristocrats would have no idea how a magical statue was speaking and conveying all manner of information. The aim was to obscure how the system worked: an elegant statue was all they could see.
Listening systems, even at this early stage, were about power, class, and secrecy. And so the question remains, what are the full resource implications of building such systems? This brings us to the materiality of the infrastructure that lies beneath.
Statua citofonica by Athanasius Kircher Reflecting upon media and technology as geological processes enables us to consider the profound depletion of non-renewable resources required to drive the technologies of the present moment.
Each object in the extended network of an AI system, from network routers to batteries to microphones, is built using elements that required billions of years to be produced. For example, the Consumer Technology Association notes that the average smartphone lifespan is 4.
From a slow process of elemental development, these elements and materials go through an extraordinarily rapid period of excavation, smelting, mixing, and logistical transport — crossing thousands of kilometers in their transformation. Geological processes mark both the beginning and the end of this period, from the mining of ore, to the deposition of material in an electronic waste dump.
However, all the transformations and movements we depict are only the barest anatomical outline: beneath these connections lie many more layers of fractal supply chains, and exploitation of human and natural resources, concentrations of corporate and geopolitical power, and continual energy consumption. Drawing out the connections between resources, labor and data extraction brings us inevitably back to traditional frameworks of exploitation.
But how is value being generated through these systems? A useful conceptual tool can be found in the work of Christian Fuchs and other authors examining and defining digital labor. The notion of digital labor, which was initially linked with different forms of non-material labor, precedes the life of devices and complex systems such as artificial intelligence.
Digital labor — the work of building and maintaining the stack of digital systems — is far from ephemeral or virtual, but is deeply embodied in different activities. These processes create new accumulations of wealth and power, which are concentrated in a very thin social layer. This triangle of value extraction and production represents one of the basic elements of our map, from birth in a geological process, through life as a consumer AI product, and ultimately to death in an electronics dump.
They form a cyclic flow in which the product of work is transformed into a resource, which is transformed into a product, which is transformed into a resource and so on. Each triangle represents one phase in the production process. Although this appears on the map as a linear path of transformation, a different visual metaphor better represents the complexity of current extractivism: the fractal structure known as the Sierpinski triangle. A linear display does not enable us to show that each next step of production and exploitation contains previous phases.
If we look at the production and exploitation system through a fractal visual structure, the smallest triangle would represent natural resources and means of labor, i. The next larger triangle encompasses the processing of metals, and the next would represent the process of manufacturing components and so on. The ultimate triangle in our map, the production of the Amazon Echo unit itself, includes all of these levels of exploitation — from the bottom to the very top of Amazon Inc, a role inhabited by Jeff Bezos as CEO of Amazon.
Like a pharaoh of ancient Egypt, he stands at the top of the largest pyramid of AI value extraction. Sierpinski triangle or Sierpinski fractal. If we look at the scale of average income for each activity in the production process of one device, which is shown on the left side of our map, we see the dramatic difference in income earned.
According to research by Amnesty International, during the excavation of cobalt which is also used for lithium batteries of 16 multinational brands, workers are paid the equivalent of one US dollar per day for working in conditions hazardous to life and health, and were often subjected to violence, extortion and intimidation. For an anthropological description of these mining processes, see: Jeffrey W. Many of the triangles shown on this map hide different stories of labor exploitation and inhumane working conditions. The ecological price of transformation of elements and income disparities is just one of the possible ways of representing a deep systemic inequality.
Consumers are usually only able to see commodities in the here and now of time and space, and rarely have any opportunities to gaze backwards through the chains of production in order to gain knowledge about the sites of production, transformation, and distribution. One illustration of the difficulty of investigating and tracking the contemporary production chain process is that it took Intel more than four years to understand its supply line well enough to ensure that no tantalum from the Congo was in its microprocessor products.
As a semiconductor chip manufacturer, Intel supplies Apple with processors.
In order to do so, Intel has its own multi-tiered supply chain of more than 19, suppliers in over countries providing direct materials for their production processes, tools and machines for their factories, and logistics and packaging services. Dutch-based technology company Philips has also claimed that it was working to make its supply chain 'conflict-free'.